Exit/Entry, Voice/Noise, and Loyalty/Apathy in the era of social media Impact of social media to public sector

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Published Jul 16, 2020
Hiroko Kudo


Use of Social Media in public life has changed the way how citizens relate to public sector. Modern communication tools, in particular Social Media, have made citizens easier to use their “voice” to mobilize. When citizens can easily mobilize, the cost of mobilization is low for them, while its impact can lead to a larger cost for the State. As the exit/entry cost of Social Media is very low or almost nothing, a virtual network has been substituting institutions, causing new issues to the State. This leads to the issue of loyalty: citizens now feel that they do not need institution like the State to belong to, as many networks substitute its function. This paper analyses the Social Media use by citizens and its impact on public sector through Albert Hirschman’s classis “Exit, Voice, and Loyalty” and tries to address new aspects.

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Kudo, Hiroko. 2020. “Exit/Entry, Voice/Noise, and Loyalty/Apathy in the Era of Social Media: Impact of Social Media to Public Sector”. Central and Eastern European EDem and EGov Days 338 (July):417-29. https://doi.org/10.24989/ocg.338.33.


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